First Author: Iu V Natochin
All Authors: Natochin IuV
Journal Title: Uspekhi fiziologicheskikh nauk
Abstract: The physiology throughout centuries was considered as the basic fundamental science in medicine. Rapid development of molecular biology, genetics and of some other natural sciences in 2nd half XX demanded century not only the answer to a question on the sciences defining the base of development of medicine, but also key problems of its progress. The biomedicine is formed, its methods are discussed, is frequent in system of natural sciences, parities with physiology. The special attention is given unconditional necessity of finding-out of molecular mechanisms of functions, targets of action of physiologically active substances and obligatory correlation of data of modeling with the same processes in conditions in vivo in whole body. The role of various sciences in the decision of fundamental problems of medicine, a place and role of physiology in modern medicine is shown.
Clinical Outcomes From The Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold: Is There A Role for Them?
Authors: Oprea B, Martínez L, Román E, Vanea E, Simon S, Huttel Y
Abstract: The need to find new nanoparticles for biomedical applications is pushing the limits of the fabrication methods. New techniques with versatilities beyond the extended chemical routes can provide new insight in the field. In particular, gas aggregation sources offer the possibility to fabricate nanoparticles with controlled size, composition, and structure out of thermodynamics. In this context, the milestone is the optimization of the dispersion and functionalization processes of nanoparticles once fabricated by these routes as they are generated in the gas phase and deposited on substrates in vacuum or ultra-high vacuum conditions. In the present work we propose a fabrication route in ultra-high vacuum that is compatible with the subsequent dispersion and functionalization of nanoparticles in aqueous media and, which is more remarkable, in one single step. In particular, we will present the fabrication of nanoparticles with a sputter gas aggregation source using a Fe50B50 target and their further dispersion and functionalization with polyethyleneglycol (PEG). Characterization of these nanoparticles is carried out before and after PEG functionalization. During functionalization, significant boron dissolution occurs, which facilitates nanoparticle dispersion in the aqueous solution. The use of different complementary techniques allows us to prove the PEG attachment onto the surface of the nanoparticles, creating a shell to make them biocompatible. The result is the formation of nanoparticles with a structure mainly composed by a metallic Fe core and an iron oxide shell, surrounded by a second PEG shell dispersed in aqueous solution. Relaxivity measurements of these PEG-functionalized nanoparticles assessed their effectiveness as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis. Therefore, this new fabrication route is a reliable alternative for the synthesis of nanoparticles for biomedicine.
Authors: Rousseaux S
Abstract: The Royan Institute in Tehran, Iran, has developed over the last 23 years and is today a leading institute in the Middle East dedicated to research and technological development programs coupled with clinical activities in the area of reproductive and stem cell biology. Here an insight into its history and future plans is given through a dialogue with one of its pioneer members and current Director, Prof. Hamid Gourabi. The Royan Institute is a remarkable example of a successful achievement in organizing basic and translational research under challenging environmental conditions.
Authors: DeGracia DJ, Taha D, Tri Anggraini F, Sutariya S, Rababeh G, Huang ZF
Abstract: Neuroprotection seeks to halt cell death after brain ischemia and has been shown to be possible in laboratory studies. However, neuroprotection has not been successfully translated into clinical practice, despite voluminous research and controlled clinical trials. We suggested these failures may be due, at least in part, to the lack of a general theory of cell injury to guide research into specific injuries. The nonlinear dynamical theory of acute cell injury was introduced to ameliorate this situation. Here we present a revised nonautonomous nonlinear theory of acute cell injury and show how to interpret its solutions in terms of acute biomedical injuries. The theory solutions demonstrate the complexity of possible outcomes following an idealized acute injury and indicate that a "one size fits all" therapy is unlikely to be successful. This conclusion is offset by the fact that the theory can (1) determine if a cell has the possibility to survive given a specific acute injury, and (2) calculate the degree of therapy needed to cause survival. To appreciate these conclusions, it is necessary to idealize and abstract complex physical systems to identify the fundamental mechanism governing the injury dynamics. The path of abstraction and idealization in biomedical research opens the possibility for medical treatments that may achieve engineering levels of precision.
Authors: Carriero N, Osier MV, Cheung KH, Miller PL, Gerstein M, Zhao H, Wu B, Rifkin S, Chang J, Zhang H, White K, Williams K, Schultz M
Abstract: The rapid advances in high-throughput biotechnologies such as DNA microarrays and mass spectrometry have generated vast amounts of data ranging from gene expression to proteomics data. The large size and complexity involved in analyzing such data demand a significant amount of computing power. High-performance computation (HPC) is an attractive and increasingly affordable approach to help meet this challenge. There is a spectrum of techniques that can be used to achieve computational speedup with varying degrees of impact in terms of how drastic a change is required to allow the software to run on an HPC platform. This paper describes a high- productivity/low-maintenance (HP/LM) approach to HPC that is based on establishing a collaborative relationship between the bioinformaticist and HPC expert that respects the former's codes and minimizes the latter's efforts. The goal of this approach is to make it easy for bioinformatics researchers to continue to make iterative refinements to their programs, while still being able to take advantage of HPC. The paper describes our experience applying these HP/LM techniques in four bioinformatics case studies: (1) genome-wide sequence comparison using Blast, (2) identification of biomarkers based on statistical analysis of large mass spectrometry data sets, (3) complex genetic analysis involving ordinal phenotypes, (4) large-scale assessment of the effect of possible errors in analyzing microarray data. The case studies illustrate how the HP/LM approach can be applied to a range of representative bioinformatics applications and how the approach can lead to significant speedup of computationally intensive bioinformatics applications, while making only modest modifications to the programs themselves.
Authors: Dean W
Abstract: Fertilization triggers a cascade of cellular and molecular events restoring the totipotent state and the potential for all cell types. However, the program quickly directs differentiation and cellular commitment. Under the genetic and epigenetic control of this process, Waddington likened this to a three-dimensional landscape where cells could not ascend the slope or traverse once canalized thus leading to cell fate decisions and the progressive restriction of cellular potency. But this is not the only possible outcome at least experimentally. Somatic cell nuclear transfer and overexpression of key transcription factors to generate induced pluripotent cells have challenged this notion. The return to pluripotency and the reinstatement of plasticity and heterogeneity once thought to be the exclusive remit of the developing embryo can now be replicated in vitro. The following chapter introduces some of these ideas and suggests that the fundamental principles learned may constitute the first step toward the opportunity for specific tissue renewal and replacement in healthy aging and the treatment of chronic diseases-the age of regenerative medicine.
Authors: Gordon AJ
Abstract: This paper, based on fieldwork among agrarian reform beneficiaries in the Dominican Republic, examines the utilization of health care. Specific attention is given to the consumption of private medical care and its relationship to changes in the system of land tenure, policy in the agrarian reform, and the roles of physicians. A principal concern of the paper is the examination of the adaptive strategies of beneficiaries of the reform in light of political and economic influences. A second concern is the consideration of the integration of critical medical anthropology's perspectives on the political economy with a perspective on decision-making and adaptive strategies.
Authors: Huang F, Xu L, Xu H
Abstract: Dendrimers are new macromolecules synthesized in recent years, which are of great interests in many fields where they have potential important applications because of their hyperbranched, well defined and monodisperse structures. In this paper, the unique structures, general synthesis routes and basic physical and chemical properties of dendrimers are introduced in brief, and the progress in the research of dendrimers in drug (gene) delivery, contrast agents, cancer therapy were reviewed, as well as the perspective in research and applications.
Authors: Montbriand MJ
Abstract: Little is known of the experiences of oncology patients who abandon biomedicine to use alternate therapies. This ethnography provides insights into the experiences of eight estranged informants. Six main themes emerging from the analysis are (a) expressed stress: emotions such as anger and fear, (b) taking control, (c) belief in a cure, (d) social group association, (e) cost considerations, and (f) mystical insights into health care. Conducted over 3 years, the study includes a network sample and longitudinal case study with one key witness. Individual interviews and one focus group were included. Insights are provided for health professionals who may encounter biomedical abandonment.
Authors: Bishop J, Sunderland N
Abstract: What is it like to live with the label "Disability?" NIB editorial staff and narrative symposium editors, Jeffery Bishop and Naomi Sunderland developed a call for stories, which was sent to several list serves, shared with the 1000 Voices Project community and posted on Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics' website. The request for personal stories from people who identify with the label "disabled" asked them to: consider how the label "disability" interacts with other aspects of their life in health care settings; does the term "disability" reflect their actual embodied experiences of impairment or does it fail to do justice to their particular experience of impairment; describe the kind of experiences that are possible because of the impairment(s); discuss how the label has affected their "authentic voice"; and many other concepts about what effects the label has on their lives. These authors share deeply personal experiences that will help readers understand their world, challenges, and joys. Thirteen stories are found in the print version of the journal and an additional five supplemental stories are published online only through Project MUSE. The stories are complemented by four commentary articles by Elizabeth R. Schiltz; Lorna Hallahan; Nicole Matthews, Kathleen Ellem, and Lesley Chenoweth; and Jeffery Bishop, Rachelle Barina, and Devan Stahl. These scholars come from the disciplines of law, social work, media studies, medicine, and bioethics from Australia and the United States. Together, the symposium's storytellers and commentators offer striking and informative insights into the everydayness of living with disabilities.
Authors: Byk JC
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to stimulate academic debate on embryo and fetal research from the perspective of the drafting of a protocol to the European Convention on Biomedicine. The Steering Committee on Bioethics of the Council of Europe was mandated to draw up such a protocol and for this purpose organised an important symposium on reproductive technologies and embryo research, in Strasbourg from the 16th to the 18th of December 1996.