First Author: Iu V Natochin
All Authors: Natochin IuV
Journal Title: Uspekhi fiziologicheskikh nauk
Abstract: The physiology throughout centuries was considered as the basic fundamental science in medicine. Rapid development of molecular biology, genetics and of some other natural sciences in 2nd half XX demanded century not only the answer to a question on the sciences defining the base of development of medicine, but also key problems of its progress. The biomedicine is formed, its methods are discussed, is frequent in system of natural sciences, parities with physiology. The special attention is given unconditional necessity of finding-out of molecular mechanisms of functions, targets of action of physiologically active substances and obligatory correlation of data of modeling with the same processes in conditions in vivo in whole body. The role of various sciences in the decision of fundamental problems of medicine, a place and role of physiology in modern medicine is shown.
Clinical Outcomes From The Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold: Is There A Role for Them?
Authors: Masotti A
Abstract: In recent years, polymeric scaffolds have been used in several biomedical applications for the delivery of drugs or other biologically relevant molecules. Polymeric nanostructures possess different (and in some cases more powerful) properties respect to bulk materials. This, leaded academic researchers and industry to cooperate in developing pioneering nanostructured materials for industrial and biomedical applications. Moreover, the preparation and use of systems with multiple (multifunctional) properties (i.e., bioconjugation with superparamagnetic, fluorescent or targeting molecules) will represent in the future a viable and innovative tool for application in several clinical fields. This brief critical review collects and discusses some recent patents about the preparation and use of these multifunctional nanoparticles in biomedicine and in non-invasive bioimaging applications.
Authors: Dommel FW, Alexander D
Abstract: The Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine developed by the Council of Europe, now undergoing ratification, is the first international treaty focused on bioethics. This article describes the background of the Convention's development and its general provisions and provides a comparison of its requirements with those of federal regulations governing research with human subjects. Although most provisions are comparable, there are significant differences in scope and applicability, for example, in the areas of compensation for injury, research participation by persons with limited capacity to consent, assisted reproduction, organ transplantation, and research in emergency situations. The Convention represents a milestone in international bioethics and protection of human rights that will probably be referred to with increasing frequency.
Authors: Casado-Vela J, Fuentes M, Franco-Zorrilla JM
Abstract: In this report, we focus on two different array-based technologies that enable large-scale screening of protein interactions. First, protein arrays focus on the identification of protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Second, DNA arrays have also evolved to explore the identification of protein-DNA interactions (PDIs), offering novel tools to control key biological processes. Such a tool is termed protein-binding DNA arrays (also protein-DNA arrays or protein-binding microarrays). These two array-based technologies share unrivaled screening capabilities and constitute valid approaches to address biological questions at the molecular level and, eventually, may be used in biomedical applications. Outstanding achievements of these technologies and their eventual application in biomedicine are discussed here, including the identification and characterization of biomarkers, screening of PPIs, detection of protein posttranslational modifications and biofluid profiling. Advantages and limitations of protein arrays, protein-binding arrays, and other proteomic technologies are also discussed here. Finally, we built a list of dedicated databases and on-line resources comprising updated information on human PPIs and PDIs that can serve as a toolbox for researchers in the field.
Authors: Brown MT, McElroy JA
Abstract: Sexual and gender minority (SGM) breast cancer patients have begun embracing the choice to "go flat" or opt out of reconstruction after bilateral mastectomy, though little is known about this population. SGM breast cancer survivors were identified through purposive and referral sampling and invited to participate in a web-based survey containing both closed- and open-ended items. Of the sixty-eight SGM breast cancer survivors aged 18-75 years who completed the survey between May 2015 and January 2016, 25 percent reported "going flat" (flattoppers®). Bivariate analyses revealed that flattoppers® were significantly more likely to have been diagnosed in the past five years, to identify as genderqueer, to have disclosed their sexual orientation or gender identity (SOGI) to providers, and to report participating in lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender cancer support groups, compared to other participants. More flattoppers® believed that SOGI mattered in terms of getting the support they needed regarding their cancer; this difference was not statistically significant. Thematic analysis of qualitative comments from flattoppers® revealed themes related to reasons for making this treatment choice, interactions with health-care providers around treatment choice, and physical and emotional outcomes of treatment choice. Providers would benefit from training about SOGI as they relate to treatment choices.
Authors: Maes M, Nowak G, Caso JR, Leza JC, Song C, Kubera M, Klein H, Galecki P, Noto C, Glaab E, Balling R, Berk M
Abstract: Meta-analyses confirm that depression is accompanied by signs of inflammation including increased levels of acute phase proteins, e.g., C-reactive protein, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, e.g., interleukin-6. Supporting the translational significance of this, a meta-analysis showed that anti-inflammatory drugs may have antidepressant effects. Here, we argue that inflammation and depression research needs to get onto a new track. Firstly, the choice of inflammatory biomarkers in depression research was often too selective and did not consider the broader pathways. Secondly, although mild inflammatory responses are present in depression, other immune-related pathways cannot be disregarded as new drug targets, e.g., activation of cell-mediated immunity, oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) pathways, autoimmune responses, bacterial translocation, and activation of the toll-like receptor and neuroprogressive pathways. Thirdly, anti-inflammatory treatments are sometimes used without full understanding of their effects on the broader pathways underpinning depression. Since many of the activated immune-inflammatory pathways in depression actually confer protection against an overzealous inflammatory response, targeting these pathways may result in unpredictable and unwanted results. Furthermore, this paper discusses the required improvements in research strategy, i.e., path and drug discovery processes, omics-based techniques, and systems biomedicine methodologies. Firstly, novel methods should be employed to examine the intracellular networks that control and modulate the immune, O&NS and neuroprogressive pathways using omics-based assays, including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, epigenomics, immunoproteomics and metagenomics. Secondly, systems biomedicine analyses are essential to unravel the complex interactions between these cellular networks, pathways, and the multifactorial trigger factors and to delineate new drug targets in the cellular networks or pathways. Drug discovery processes should delineate new drugs targeting the intracellular networks and immune-related pathways.
Authors: Haram L
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is twofold: to describe Tswana medicine as a system of thought and to show how traditional medical roles are acted out in the encounter with Western biomedicine. I want to draw attention to the contrast between the intellectual systems of African traditional thought and Western science as applied to health and illness (medicine). I do not argue that biomedicine is more open and adaptable to change than folk medicine, or vice versa. Rather, I want to show that both integration ('openness'), as well as rejection ('closeness'), occur when Tswana medicine meets biomedicine. How do the Botswana make sense of a new body of knowledge and ideas of contagion in a context of medical pluralism? How are medical roles adapted to the situation of medical pluralism and the predicaments that flow from such a situation. In conclusion I will briefly discuss some of the elements that may determine the future outcome of the integrative health policy: Is it possible to obtain mutual understanding and cooperation among the various practitioners--in the context of medical pluralism--when their knowledge is built on such different medical explanations and modes of though as those of biomedicine and folk medicine?
Authors: Li C, Wang LV
Abstract: Photoacoustics has been broadly studied in biomedicine, for both human and small animal tissues. Photoacoustics uniquely combines the absorption contrast of light or radio frequency waves with ultrasound resolution. Moreover, it is non-ionizing and non-invasive, and is the fastest growing new biomedical method, with clinical applications on the way. This review provides a brief recap of recent developments in photoacoustics in biomedicine, from basic principles to applications. The emphasized areas include the new imaging modalities, hybrid detection methods, photoacoustic contrast agents and the photoacoustic Doppler effect, as well as translational research topics.
Authors: Gordon AJ
Abstract: This paper, based on fieldwork among agrarian reform beneficiaries in the Dominican Republic, examines the utilization of health care. Specific attention is given to the consumption of private medical care and its relationship to changes in the system of land tenure, policy in the agrarian reform, and the roles of physicians. A principal concern of the paper is the examination of the adaptive strategies of beneficiaries of the reform in light of political and economic influences. A second concern is the consideration of the integration of critical medical anthropology's perspectives on the political economy with a perspective on decision-making and adaptive strategies.
Authors: Olson VA
Abstract: Using data from an ethnographic study of American astronautics, I argue that, in an inversion of the usual clinical model, astronaut medical subjecthood is fundamentally environmental rather than biological. In extreme environments like outer space, the concept of environment cannot be bracketed out from life processes; as a result, investments of power and knowledge shift from life itself to the sites of interface among living things, technologies, and environments. To illustrate what this means on the ground, I describe space biomedicine as a form of environmental medicine that seeks to optimize and manage technically enabled human ecologies where life and environment are dually problematized. I provide two examples of what I term its ecobiopolitical strategies: creating a new "space normal" physiological category and situating humans as at-risk elements within integrated biological/technological/environmental systems.
Authors: Aleström P, Holter JL, Nourizadeh-Lillabadi R
Abstract: The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has many features that make it an ideal model for the study of developmental biology. It is small and easy to contain, it has transparent embryos, it is easy to breed and its early development is well characterized; these same characteristics have also made it an ideal vertebrate model in the areas of biomedicine and biotechnology. In aquaculture, the need for a well-characterized fish model has been satisfied by the zebrafish owing to the availability of functional genomics and molecular biology data to facilitate studies of growth, reproduction, meat quality and disease biology, with the corresponding development of vaccines and therapies. Zebrafish are also increasingly used in toxicogenomics to analyze the effects of toxins and pollutants in the environment, and for creating biomonitors that emit alarm signals when a toxic compound is detected. As detailed in this review, the zebrafish is a versatile and well-characterized model with applications in many fields of study.