First Author: Ophir Keret
All Authors: Keret O
Journal Title: The Israel Medical Association journal : IMAJ
Abstract: Synthetic bioiogy is a ,relatively new fieild of bologlcal research and development that focases on the engineering of genetic molecular machlnes wIth a specific predefined function. Plainly put the newly engineered organism functions as a machine. It can process information. manufature, heal and even diagnose. We just have to engineer It to do so. The famous quote "Biology Is the nanotechnology that works" is currently being put to the test on a worldwide scale. The application of these machines Is theoretically boundless. In laboratories worldwide synthetic biology technologies are being rationally designed to assist in diagnosis or disrupt disease mechnisms. In the not too distant future they are expected to reach the clinical setting. This new field should be distinguished from classic genetic engineering. The latter researches naturalfy found DNA segments via cloning. It is weakly associated with engineering. Synthetic biology focuses on the engineering of molecular biological machines for the benefit of mankind. This is done via synthetic (computer printed) DNA sequences, man-designed or altered in silico. In this article I will briefly introduce synthetic biology, elaborate on the BiobrickFoundation as an independent fast-growing synthetic biology-sharing movement, and report on selected developing applications for medicine.
Authors: Sazonov I, Nithiarasu P
Abstract: An overview of surface and volume mesh generation techniques for creating valid meshes to carry out biomedical flows is provided. The methods presented are designed for robust numerical modelling of biofluid flow through subject-specific geometries. The applications of interest are haemodynamics in blood vessels and air flow in upper human respiratory tract. The methods described are designed to minimize distortion to a given domain boundary. They are also designed to generate a triangular surface mesh first and then volume mesh (tetrahedrons) with high quality surface and volume elements. For blood flow applications, a simple procedure to generate a boundary layer mesh is also described. The methods described here are semi-automatic in nature because of the fact that the geometries are complex, and automation of the procedures may be possible if high quality scans are used.
Authors: Loscri V, Matekovits L, Peter I, Vegni AM
Abstract: Innovative diagnostic approaches and therapies are more and more based on the use of injections or oral delivery of nanoparticle sized substances. For a better understanding of the overall phenomena, aiming to facilitate a safe application at large scale, the development of accurate models and analysis techniques are required. These techniques take into consideration different aspects of the overall process: accurate numerical modeling of the different phases of the nanoparticles in the body, and knowledge of the local environment, that can be varying very fast within a short-range in the body itself. Such aspects should be taken into account to correctly predict the amount of drug and its timely release for the specific disease. Deep and accurate analysis of the interaction between the nanoparticles and the biological fluid where the nanoparticles are immersed is mandatory for an efficient correlation of all these aspects. Because of their biocompatibility, in this paper, we focus our attention on systems of Titanium (Ti), and its oxide (e.g., TiO2), given their specific features in terms of density, lack of cytotoxic effects, etc. Specifically, we present the study and design of an in-body system by characterizing each of the emission, diffusion, and reception processes with a proper realistic model. The theoretical investigation is further supported by experimental study of the morphology and other important characteristics (e.g., the pH of the particles, and thermal stability) of TiO2 systems when immersed in a Ringer solution, in order to derive important information related to their potential toxicity inside the human body.
Authors: Amith SR, Fliegel L
Abstract: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in women in Europe and North America, and metastasis is the primary cause of fatality in patients with breast cancer. While some breast cancers are quite treatable, the triple-negative breast cancers are more metastatic and resistant to chemotherapy. There is clearly an urgent need for better treatments for this form of the disease. Breast cancer is characterized by genetically complex intra-tumour heterogeneity, particularly within the triple-negative clinical subtype. This complicates treatment options, so the development of specifically targeted chemotherapy for less treatable forms is critical. Dysregulation of pH homeostasis is a common factor in breast tumour cells. This occurs in concert with a metabolic switch to aerobic glycolysis that occurs at the onset of oncogenic transformation. The Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) is the major pH regulatory protein involved in the increased proton extrusion of breast cancer cells. Its increased activity results in intracellular alkalinisation and extracellular acidification that drives cancer progression. The acidification of the extracellular tumour microenvironment also contributes to the development of chemotherapy resistance. In this review, we outline the role of H+ as a carcinogenic signal and the role and regulation of NHE1 as a trigger for metastasis. We review recent evidence supporting the use of pharmacological inhibitors of NHE1 as a viable treatment option for triple-negative breast cancer.
Authors: Ceusters W, Smith B
Abstract: We present a novel methodology for calculating the improvements obtained in successive versions of biomedical ontologies. The theory takes into account changes both in reality itself and in our understanding of this reality. The successful application of the theory rests on the willingness of ontology authors to document changes they make by following a number of simple rules. The theory provides a pathway by which ontology authoring can become a science rather than an art, following principles analogous to those that have fostered the growth of modern evidence-based medicine. Although in this paper we focus on ontologies, the methodology can be generalized to other sorts of terminology-based artifacts, including Electronic Patient Records.
Authors: Han DK, Kim JM, Cha EJ, Lee TS
Abstract: The present study is about a biometric system for a wheelchair, which can measure both bio-signal (ECG-Electrocardiogram, BCG-Ballistocardiogram) and kinetic signal (acceleration) simultaneously and send the data to a remote medical server. The equipment was developed with the object of building a system that measures the bio-signal and kinetic signal of a subject who is moving or at rest on a wheelchair and transmits the measured signals to a remote server through a CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) network. The equipment is composed of body area network and remote medical server. The body area network was designed to obtain bio-signal and kinetic signal simultaneously and, on the occurrence of an event, to transmit data to a remote medical server through a CDMA network. The remote medical server was designed to display event data transmitted from the body area network in real time. The performance of the developed system was evaluated through two experiments. First, we measured battery life on the occurrence of events, and second, we tested whether biometric data are transmitted accurately to the remote server on the occurrence of an event. In the first experiment using the developed equipment, events were triggered 16 times and the battery worked stably for around 29 hours. In the second experiment, when an event took place, the corresponding data were transmitted accurately to the remote medical server through a CDMA network. This system is expected to be usable for the healthcare of those moving on a wheelchair and applicable to a mobile healthcare system.
Authors: Platt MB, Platt MO
Abstract: From the travel ban on people living with HIV (PLHIV) to resistance to needle exchange programmes, there are many examples where policy responses to HIV/AIDS in the United States seem divorced from behavioural, public health and sociological evidence. At its root, however, the unknowns about HIV/AIDS lie at biomedical science, and scientific researchers have made tremendous progress over the past 30 years of the epidemic by using antiretroviral therapy to increase the life expectancy of PLHIV almost to the same level as non-infected individuals; but a relationship between biomedical science discoveries and congressional responses to HIV/AIDS has not been studied. Using quantitative approaches, we directly examine the hypothesis that progress in HIV/AIDS biomedical science discoveries would have a correlative relationship with congressional response to HIV/AIDS from 1981 to 2010.This study used original data on every bill introduced, hearing held and law passed by the US Congress relating to HIV/AIDS over 30 years (1981-2010). We combined congressional data with the most cited and impactful biomedical research scientific publications over the same time period as a metric of biomedical science breakthroughs. Correlations between congressional policy and biomedical research were then analyzed at the aggregate and individual levels.Biomedical research advancements helped shape both the level and content of bill sponsorship on HIV/AIDS, but they had no effect on other stages of the legislative process. Examination of the content of bills and biomedical research indicated that science helped transform HIV/AIDS bill sponsorship from a niche concern of liberal Democrats to a bipartisan coalition when Republicans became the majority party. The trade-off for that expansion has been an emphasis on the global epidemic to the detriment of domestic policies and programmes.Breakthroughs in biomedical science did associate with the number and types of HIV/AIDS bills introduced in Congress, but that relationship did not extend to the passage of laws or to hearings. When science matters, it cannot be separated from political considerations. An important implication of our work has been the depoliticizing role that science can play. Scientific breakthroughs helped to transform HIV/AIDS policy from a niche of liberal Democrats into bipartisan support for the global fight against the disease.
Authors: Spiroski M
Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyze relative citation ratio (RCR) of top twenty Macedonian biomedical scientists with a new metric that uses citation rates to measure influence at the article level.Top twenty Macedonian biomedical scientists were identified by GoPubMed on the base of the number of deposited abstracts in PubMed, corrected with the data from previously published paper, and completed with the Macedonian biomedical scientists working in countries outside the Republic of Macedonia, but born or previously worked in the country. iCite was used as a tool to access a dashboard of bibliometrics for papers associated with a portfolio.The biggest number of top twenty Macedonian biomedical scientists has RCR lower than one. Only four Macedonian biomedical scientists have bigger RCR in comparison with those in PubMed. The most prominent RCR of 2.29 has Rosoklija G. RCR of the most influenced individual papers deposited in PubMed has shown the biggest value for the paper of Efremov D (35.19). This paper has the biggest number of authors (860).It is necessary to accept top twenty Macedonian biomedical scientists as an example of new metric that uses citation rates to measure influence at the article level, rather than qualification of the best Macedonian biomedical scientists.
Authors: Blann AD
Abstract: Three documents from government-sponsored bodies have recently provided new guidance on the diagnosis, treatment and management of venous thromboembolism. The Report of the Independent Expert Working Group to the Chief Medical Officer makes recommendations on general administrative arrangements, and provides a strategy for thromboprophylaxis. Among the recommendations of Guideline 46 from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence are that all patients about to undergo surgery should be assessed to identify their risk factors for developing veno-thromboembolic disease, and be offered graduated compression/anti-embolism stockings and/or pharmacoprophylaxis. The National Patient Safety Agency document focuses principally on the management of, and education in, the use of oral anticoagulants. The impact and implications of these three documents for haematology-based biomedical scientists, such as in leading a thrombosis team, directing clinical management, training of healthcare professions, and in patient education, will be discussed.
Authors: Wang H, Chen G, Lu X, Zhang H, Feng C
Abstract: The sample geometric mean has been widely used in biomedical and psychosocial research to estimate and compare population geometric means. However, due to the detection limit of measurement instruments, the actual value of the measurement is not always observable. A common practice to deal with this problem is to replace missing values by small positive constants and make inferences based on the imputed data. However, no work has been carried out to study the effect of this naïve imputation method on inference. In this report, we show that this simple imputation method may dramatically change the reported outcomes of a study and, thus, make the results uninterpretable, even if the detection limit is very small. ???????????????????????????????????????????, ???????????, ??????????????????????????????????????????, ?????????????????????, ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????, ??????????, ??????????.????????2016 ?2 ?26 ??? http://dx.doi.org/10.11919/j.issn.1002-0829.215121????????.
Authors: Richard A, Margaritis A
Abstract: Paclitaxel is a widely used anti-cancer agent. Conjugates of paclitaxel with poly(glutamic acid) have shown great promise in preclinical trials, and clinical trials are now underway. Preclinical data suggest that more paclitaxel is preferentially delivered to tumor sites vs. nonconjugated paclitaxel. When poly(glutamic acid) is conjugated to other families of cancer drugs, similar improvements in effectiveness and reduced toxicity are observed. Optimization of poly(glutamic acid) for use in drug delivery applications is a key step in making this technology viable.