First Author: Thamara Beline
All Authors: Beline T, Marques Ida S, Matos AO, Ogawa ES, Ricomini-Filho AP, Rangel EC, da Cruz NC, Sukotjo C, Mathew MT, Landers R, Consani RL, Mesquita MF, BarÃ£o VA
Journal Title: Biointerphases
Abstract: In this study, the authors tested the hypotheses that plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) and glow-discharge plasma (GDP) would improve the electrochemical, physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of commercially pure titanium (cpTi), and that blood protein adsorption on plasma-treated surfaces would increase. Machined and sandblasted surfaces were used as controls. Standard electrochemical tests were conducted in artificial saliva (pHs of 3.0, 6.5, and 9.0) and simulated body fluid. Surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, profilometry, Vickers microhardness, and surface energy. For biological assay, the adsorption of blood serum proteins (i.e., albumin, fibrinogen, and fibronectin) was tested. Higher values of polarization resistance and lower values of capacitance were noted for the PEO and GDP groups (p?0.05). Acidic artificial saliva reduced the corrosion resistance of cpTi (p?0.05). PEO and GDP treatments improved the surface properties by enrichment of the surface chemistry with bioactive elements and increased surface energy. PEO produced a porous oxide layer (5-?m thickness), while GDP created a very thin oxide layer (0.76-?m thickness). For the PEO group, the authors noted rutile and anatase crystalline structures that may be responsible for the corrosion barrier improvement and increased microhardness values. Plasma treatments were able to enhance the surface properties and electrochemical stability of titanium, while increasing protein adsorption levels.
Authors: Da Silveira M, Dos Reis JC, Pruski C
Abstract: Controlled terminologies and their dependent artefacts provide a consensual understanding of a domain while reducing ambiguities and enabling reasoning. However, the evolution of a domain's knowledge directly impacts these terminologies and generates inconsistencies in the underlying biomedical information systems. In this article, we review existing work addressing the dynamic aspect of terminologies as well as their effects on mappings and semantic annotations.We investigate approaches related to the identification, characterization and propagation of changes in terminologies, mappings and semantic annotations including techniques to update their content.Based on the explored issues and existing methods, we outline open research challenges requiring investigation in the near future.
Authors: Avazzadeh R, Vasheghani-Farahani E, Soleimani M, Amanpour S, Sadeghi M
Abstract: Cancer treatment has been very challenging in recent decades. One of the most promising cancer treatment methods is hyperthermia, which increases the tumor temperature (41-45 °C). Magnetic nanoparticles have been widely used for selective targeting of cancer cells. In the present study, magnetic dextran-spermine nanoparticles, conjugated with Anti-HER2 antibody to target breast cancer cells were developed. The magnetic dextran-spermine nanoparticles (DMNPs) were prepared by ionic gelation, followed by conjugation of antibody to them using EDC-NHS method. Then the Prussian blue method was used to estimate the targeting ability and cellular uptake. Cytotoxicity assay by MTT showed that antibody-conjugated MNPs (ADMNPs) have no toxic effect on SKBR3 and human fibroblast cells. Finally, the hyperthermia was applied to show that synthesized ADMNPs, could increase the cancer cells temperature up to 45 °C and kill most of them without affecting normal cells. These observations proved that Anti-HER2 conjugated magnetic dextran-spermine nanoparticles can target and destroy cancer cells and are potentially suitable for cancer treatment.
Authors: Bugrov SA, Voronin LI, Voronkov YuI , Korotayev MM, Senkevich YuA
Abstract: The first cosmonauts were selected from the flying personnel. These individuals enjoying good health were more familiar with the conditions and effects of the factors similar to those which are to be found in space missions. In future, because of the complication of tasks to be solved in space missions, an inflight utilization and testing of sophisticated space technology, and conducting a broad spectrum of scientific studies, a demand arose for including cosmonaut-researchers--highly qualified representatives of various scientific specialities--in a flight crew. In this connection, a necessity was created for changing some evaluation criteria to assess the health status of the chosen candidates considering their age and physical fitness. In specific cases, during the selection process some health-improving measures related to professional significance of the candidates for a position of cosmonaut-researcher was carried out. The prime goal of cosmonauts selection is to predict their good tolerance for a particular space mission while maintaining health and adequate performance throughout the flight, completing the flight tasks and assuring successful return to the Earth. Inclusion of cosmonaut-researchers in space crews requires study of an effect of spaceflight factors on reactions of female subjects in simulated ground-based investigations. At present, the preparation of cosmonauts, can be defined as a continuous purposeful process of training, forming and maintaining operational skills, bringing up the crewmembers to acquire professionally significant psychological and physical features essential for effective work to be done in space mission. The preparation of cosmonauts consists mainly of technical, aviation and space, medical-biological and scientific trainings.
Authors: Huang A, Nielson GM, Razdan A, Farin GE, Baluch DP, Capco DG
Abstract: This paper presents a shape-based approach in extracting thin structures, such as lines and sheets, from three-dimensional (3D) biomedical images. Of particular interest is the capability to recover cellular structures, such as microtubule spindle fibers and plasma membranes, from laser scanning confocal microscopic (LSCM) data. Hessian-based shape methods are reviewed. A synthesized linear structure is used to evaluate the sensitivity of the multiscale filtering approach in extracting closely positioned fibers. We find that the multiscale approach tends to fuse lines together, which makes it unsuitable for visualizing mouse egg spindle fibers. Single-scale Gaussian filters, balanced between sensitivity and noise resistance, are adopted instead. In addition, through an ellipsoidal Gaussian model, the eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix are quantitatively associated with the standard deviations of the Gaussian model. Existing shape filters are simplified and applied to LSCM data. A significant improvement in extracting closely positioned thin lines is demonstrated by the resultant images. Further, the direct association of shape models and eigenvalues makes the processed images more understandable qualitatively and quantitatively.
Authors: Azami H, Fernández A, Escudero J
Abstract: Multiscale entropy (MSE) has been a prevalent algorithm to quantify the complexity of biomedical time series. Recent developments in the field have tried to alleviate the problem of undefined MSE values for short signals. Moreover, there has been a recent interest in using other statistical moments than the mean, i.e., variance, in the coarse-graining step of the MSE. Building on these trends, here we introduce the so-called refined composite multiscale fuzzy entropy based on the standard deviation (RCMFE?) and mean (RCMFE?) to quantify the dynamical properties of spread and mean, respectively, over multiple time scales. We demonstrate the dependency of the RCMFE? and RCMFE?, in comparison with other multiscale approaches, on several straightforward signal processing concepts using a set of synthetic signals. The results evidenced that the RCMFE? and RCMFE? values are more stable and reliable than the classical multiscale entropy ones. We also inspect the ability of using the standard deviation as well as the mean in the coarse-graining process using magnetoencephalograms in Alzheimer's disease and publicly available electroencephalograms recorded from focal and non-focal areas in epilepsy. Our results indicated that when the RCMFE? cannot distinguish different types of dynamics of a particular time series at some scale factors, the RCMFE? may do so, and vice versa. The results showed that RCMFE?-based features lead to higher classification accuracies in comparison with the RCMFE?-based ones. We also made freely available all the Matlab codes used in this study at http://dx.doi.org/10.7488/ds/1477 .
Authors: Lamb J
Abstract: The ultimate objective of biomedical research is to connect human diseases with the genes that underlie them and drugs that treat them. But this remains a daunting task, and even the most inspired researchers still have to resort to laborious screens of genetic or chemical libraries. What if at least some parts of this screening process could be systematized and centralized? And hits found and hypotheses generated with something resembling an internet search engine? These are the questions the Connectivity Map project set out to answer.
Authors: Barker LF, Rau EH, Pfister EA, Calcagni J
Abstract: This is the report of the National Association of Physicians for the Environment Committee on Development of a Pollution Prevention and Energy Efficiency Clearinghouse for Biomedical Research Facilities from the Leadership Conference on Biomedical Research and the Environment held at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, on 1--2 November 1999. A major goal of the conference was the establishment of a World Wide Web-based clearinghouse, which would lend tremendous resources to the biomedical research community by providing access to a database of peer-reviewed articles and references dealing with a host of aspects of biomedical research relating to energy efficiency, pollution prevention, and waste reduction. A temporary website has been established with the assistance of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Regions III and IV, where a pilot site provides access to the EPA's existing databases on these topics. A system of peer review for articles and promising techniques still must be developed, but a glimpse of topics and search engines is available for comment and review on the EPA Region IV-supported website (http://wrrc.p2pays.org/).
Authors: Russell JH, Stahl PD, Stephenson J, Whelan A
Abstract: The extraordinary discoveries of 20th century medicine and technology have created a scientific renaissance. This explosion of new knowledge and the tantalizing potential it holds for altering the course of human health and disease will change the practice of medicine and require the education of a new generation of translational/clinical scientists and physician-scientists as well as an accelerated evolution of the teaching paradigms for the training of physicians.
Authors: Venter PA, Schneemann A
Abstract: Flock House virus (FHV) is a nonenveloped, icosahedral insect virus whose genome consists of two molecules of single-stranded, positive-sense RNA. FHV is a highly tractable system for studies on a variety of basic aspects of RNA virology. In this review, recent studies on the replication of FHV genomic and subgenomic RNA are discussed, including a landmark study on the ultrastructure and molecular organization of FHV replication complexes. In addition, we show how research on FHV B2, a potent suppressor of RNA silencing, resulted in significant insights into antiviral immunity in insects. We also explain how the specific packaging of the bipartite genome of this virus is not only controlled by specific RNA-protein interactions but also by coupling between RNA replication and genome recognition. Finally, applications for FHV as an epitopepresenting system are described with particular reference to its recent use for the development of a novel anthrax antitoxin and vaccine.
Authors: Qi H, Huang G, Han Y, Zhang X, Li Y, Pingguan-Murphy B, Lu TJ, Xu F, Wang L
Abstract: Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) emerges as building bricks for the fabrication of nanostructure with complete artificial architecture and geometry. The amazing ability of DNA in building two- and three-dimensional structures raises the possibility of developing smart nanomachines with versatile controllability for various applications. Here, we overviewed the recent progresses in engineering DNA machines for specific bioengineering and biomedical applications.