First Author: Thamara Beline
All Authors: Beline T, Marques Ida S, Matos AO, Ogawa ES, Ricomini-Filho AP, Rangel EC, da Cruz NC, Sukotjo C, Mathew MT, Landers R, Consani RL, Mesquita MF, BarÃ£o VA
Journal Title: Biointerphases
Abstract: In this study, the authors tested the hypotheses that plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) and glow-discharge plasma (GDP) would improve the electrochemical, physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of commercially pure titanium (cpTi), and that blood protein adsorption on plasma-treated surfaces would increase. Machined and sandblasted surfaces were used as controls. Standard electrochemical tests were conducted in artificial saliva (pHs of 3.0, 6.5, and 9.0) and simulated body fluid. Surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, profilometry, Vickers microhardness, and surface energy. For biological assay, the adsorption of blood serum proteins (i.e., albumin, fibrinogen, and fibronectin) was tested. Higher values of polarization resistance and lower values of capacitance were noted for the PEO and GDP groups (p?0.05). Acidic artificial saliva reduced the corrosion resistance of cpTi (p?0.05). PEO and GDP treatments improved the surface properties by enrichment of the surface chemistry with bioactive elements and increased surface energy. PEO produced a porous oxide layer (5-?m thickness), while GDP created a very thin oxide layer (0.76-?m thickness). For the PEO group, the authors noted rutile and anatase crystalline structures that may be responsible for the corrosion barrier improvement and increased microhardness values. Plasma treatments were able to enhance the surface properties and electrochemical stability of titanium, while increasing protein adsorption levels.
Authors: Li Z, Liu X, Li Y, Lan X, Leung PH, Li J, Li G, Xie M, Han Y, Lin X
Abstract: Antimicrobial peptides, produced by innate immune system of hosts in response to invading pathogens, are capable of fighting against a spectrum of bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites and cancer cells. Here, a recombinant silkworm AMP Bmattacin2 from heterologous expression is studied, indicating a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity and showing selective killing ability towards skin and colon cancer cells over their normal cell counterparts. For the purpose of biomedical application, the electrospinning fabrication technique is employed to load Bmattacin2 into PLLA nanofibrous membrane. In addition to a good compatibility with the normal cells, Bmattacin2 loaded nanofibrous membranes demonstrate instant antibacterial effects and sustained anticancer effects. The cancer cell and bacteria targeting dynamics of recombinant Bmattacin2 are investigated. With these characteristics, PLLA/Bmattacin2 composite membranes have a great potential for developing novel biomedical applications such as cancer therapies and wound healing treatments.
Authors: Yu S, Yu Z, Wang G, Han J, Ma X, Dargusch MS
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the biocompatibility and osteoconduction of active porous calcium-phosphate films on the novel Ti-3Zr-2Sn-3Mo-25Nb biomedical alloy. The active porous calcium-phosphate films were prepared by the micro-arc oxidation method on the surface of a near ? biomedical Ti-3Zr-2Sn-3Mo-25Nb alloy, and then activated in a hydroxyl solution followed by an aminated solution. The phase composition, surface micro-topography and elemental characteristics of the active porous calcium-phosphate films were investigated with XRD, SEM, EDS and XPS. The biocompatibility was assessed using corrosion testing, the in vitro osteoblast cultivation test and implantation in soft tissue (subcutaneous and musculature). The osteoconduction was evaluated using the simulated body fluid test and by implantation in hard tissue. The results show that the active porous films are mainly composed of TiO(2) anatase and rutile. The oxide layer is a kind of porous ceramic intermixture containing Ca and P. Immersion in simulated body fluid can induce apatite formation on the porous calcium-phosphate films resulting in excellent bioactivity. Cell cultures revealed that MC3T3-E1 cells grew on the surface exhibiting favorable morphologies. These results indicate that the Ti-3Zr-2Sn-3Mo-25Nb biomedical alloy coated with an active porous calcium-phosphate film has been shown to have excellent corrosion resistance, good biocompatibility and osteoconduction, which can promote cell proliferation and bone formation.
Authors: Karczewski KJ, Tatonetti NP, Manrai AK, Patel CJ, Titus Brown C, Ioannidis JPA
Abstract: Science is not done in a vacuum - across fields of biomedicine, scientists have built on previous research and used data published in previous papers. A mainstay of scientific inquiry is the publication of one's research and recognition for this work is given in the form of citations and notoriety - ideally given in proportion to the quality of the work. Academic incentives, however, may encourage individual researchers to prioritize career ambitions over scientific truth. Recently, the New England Journal of Medicine published a commentary calling scientists who repurpose data "research parasites" who misuse data generated by others to demonstrate alternative hypotheses. In our opinion, the concept of data hoarding not only runs contrary to the spirit of, but also hinders scientific progress. Scientific research is meant to seek objective truth, rather than promote a personal agenda, and the only way to do so is through maximum transparency and reproducibility, no matter who is using the data….
Authors: Inès M, Dhouha G
Abstract: Glycolipids, consisting of a carbohydrate moiety linked to fatty acids, are microbial surface active compounds produced by various microorganisms. They are characterized by highly structural diversity and have the ability to decrease the surface and interfacial tension at the surface and interface respectively. Rhamnolipids, trehalolipids, mannosylerythritol-lipids and cellobiose lipids are among the most popular glycolipids. Moreover, their ability to form pores and destabilize biological membrane permits their use in biomedicine as antibacterial, antifungal and hemolytic agents. Their antiviral and antitumor effects enable their use in pharmaceutic as therapeutic agents. Also, glycolipids can inhibit the bioadhesion of pathogenic bacteria enabling their use as anti-adhesive agents and for disruption of biofilm formation and can be used in cosmetic industry. Moreover, they have great potential application in industry as detergents, wetting agents and for flotation. Furthermore, glycolipids can act at the surface and can modulate enzyme activity permitting the enhancement or the inhibition of the activity of certain enzymes.
Authors: Ravichandran R, Sundarrajan S, Venugopal JR, Mukherjee S, Ramakrishna S
Abstract: The characteristics of tissue engineered scaffolds are major concerns in the quest to fabricate ideal scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. The polymer scaffolds employed for tissue engineering applications should possess multifunctional properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability and favorable mechanical properties as it comes in direct contact with the body fluids in vivo. Additionally, the polymer system should also possess biomimetic architecture and should support stem cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. As the progress in polymer technology continues, polymeric biomaterials have taken characteristics more closely related to that desired for tissue engineering and clinical needs. Stimuli responsive polymers also termed as smart biomaterials respond to stimuli such as pH, temperature, enzyme, antigen, glucose and electrical stimuli that are inherently present in living systems. This review highlights the exciting advancements in these polymeric systems that relate to biological and tissue engineering applications. Additionally, several aspects of technology namely scaffold fabrication methods and surface modifications to confer biological functionality to the polymers have also been discussed. The ultimate objective is to emphasize on these underutilized adaptive behaviors of the polymers so that novel applications and new generations of smart polymeric materials can be realized for biomedical and tissue engineering applications.
Authors: Kobayashi T, Kanda K, Ujeno Y, Ishida MR
Abstract: Physics studies related to radiation source, spectroscopy, beam quality, dosimetry, and biomedical applications using the Kyoto University Reactor Heavy Water Facility are described. Also, described are a Nickel Mirror Neutron Guide Tube and a Super Mirror Neutron Guide Tube that are used both for the measurement of boron concentration in phantom and living tissue and for precise measurements of neutron flux in phantom in the presence of both light and heavy water. Discussed are: (1) spectrum measurements using the time of flight technique, (2) the elimination of gamma rays and fast neutrons from a thermal neutron irradiation field, (3) neutron collimation without producing secondary gamma rays, (4) precise neutron flux measurements, dose estimation, and the measurement of boron concentration in tumor and its periphery using guide tubes, (5) the dose estimation of boron-10 for the first melanoma patient, and (6) special-purpose biological irradiation equipment. Other related subjects are also described.
Authors: Xing G, Zhang GQ, Cui L
Abstract: Redundant hierarchical relations refer to such patterns as two paths from one concept to another, one with length one (direct) and the other with length greater than one (indirect). Each redundant relation represents a possibly unintended defect that needs to be corrected in the ontology quality assurance process. Detecting and eliminating redundant relations would help improve the results of all methods relying on the relevant ontological systems as knowledge source, such as the computation of semantic distance between concepts and for ontology matching and alignment.This paper introduces a novel and scalable approach, called FEDRR - Fast, Exhaustive Detection of Redundant Relations - for quality assurance work during ontological evolution. FEDRR combines the algorithm ideas of Dynamic Programming with Topological Sort, for exhaustive mining of all redundant hierarchical relations in ontological hierarchies, in O(c·|V|+|E|) time, where |V| is the number of concepts, |E| is the number of the relations, and c is a constant in practice. Using FEDRR, we performed exhaustive search of all redundant is-a relations in two of the largest ontological systems in biomedicine: SNOMED CT and Gene Ontology (GO). 372 and 1609 redundant is-a relations were found in the 2015-09-01 version of SNOMED CT and 2015-05-01 version of GO, respectively. We have also performed FEDRR on over 190 source vocabularies in the UMLS - a large integrated repository of biomedical ontologies, and identified six sources containing redundant is-a relations. Randomly generated ontologies have also been used to further validate the efficiency of FEDRR.FEDRR provides a generally applicable, effective tool for systematic detecting redundant relations in large ontological systems for quality improvement.
Authors: Berner B, Björkman M
Abstract: The early 1980s saw a 'paradigm change' in how donated blood was handled and used by blood centres, hospitals and pharmaceutical companies. In Sweden, a five-year state-financed R&D programme initiated a swift modernization process, an alleged 'revolution' of existing blood centre practices. In this article, we use interviews and archival material to analyse the role of female biomedical technicians in this rapid technical and organizational change. In focus is their working knowledge, or savoir-faire, of blood, instruments and techniques. We give a detailed analysis of technicians' embrained and embodied skills to create safety in blood and its representations, handle contingencies and invent new procedures and techniques. These transformations are analysed as sociomaterial entanglements, where the doing and undoing of gender, sociomaterial practices, hierarchies of authority and expertise, and emotions are intertwined.
Authors: Demir S
Abstract: Dr. Demir will give an overview of biomedical engineering (BME) career opportunities in industry, academia and government; and she will provide comparisons. She will also present her career journey in industry, academia and government. She will focus on the skills and knowledge needed for a BME career in government. She will present the employment growth for BME.
Authors: Conti AA, Conti A, Gensini GF
Abstract: The search for biomedical information arises largely from the need to find, on the part of health operators, reliable and updated answers to the questions elicited by their patients. Even if today technology makes available powerful electronic tools for health education and updating, the enormous quantity of health information remains a major issue for professionals looking for biomedical evidence. Health operators, wishing to quickly assess and effectively extract the pertinent and relevant evidence they are looking for, have, contemporaneously, limited time to dedicate to evidence searching and enormous amounts of non-homogeneous information to scan. Research tactics and strategies emerge from the correct formulation of health queries. Posing the appropriate questions is therefore the first step of the process of retrieving clear and exhaustive answers, derived from guaranteed sources of biomedical information. The process continues with the complete identification and application of the correct method of research and economic retrieval of evidence, as also with its critical evaluation, synthesis and implementation. Knowing where and how to look for biomedical evidence in electronic databases is consequently a fundamental step in tracking the solution of a clinical problem in the perspective of Evidence Based Medicine and of any other evidence based health discipline, including what we have called "Evidence Based History of Medicine".